Honest Auto Tech

Hello This is Bhushan. I will try to give you AutoGyan (Automotive information)/Honest Automobile Reviews.

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Wednesday, January 9, 2019

ABS Explained (Anti-lock Braking System)

Hello Everyone,
Welcome to New Article about ABS, here we will see why ABS is important, why do we need ABS, how it works, its types in bikes and cars etc
Title

Stopping a Car without efforts and Slippage is great task for every driver and yes normal brakes do it.

But in Panic situations when you have to stop the car without loosing your control, ABS helps you.Anti-lock braking systems (ABS) helps on slippery surfaces, even where professional drivers can't stop car as quickly without ABS as an average driver can do with ABS.


What is ABS ? 


The full form of ABS is ANTI LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM 
Theory behind ABS is simple, if you are driving on a road and suddenly obstacle comes in between, if you press brake hards it will skid but if you having ABS you'll be having benifits like car will stop faster and you 'll be able to steer while stopping it does not locks your wheels.

Components of ABS system 


  1. Controlling Unit 
  2. Speed Sensors 
  3. Valves 
  4. Pump

Controlling Unit 

Controlling unit is basically your cars ECU, it keeps tracking speed sensors and control the valves while in action.

Speed Sensors 

To know the condition of wheel is it locking or not the speed sensors are located in each of the wheel which provides information to the controller.

Valves 

The valve is a brake line which controls the braking of vehicle and it has the 3 position 
1. In case 1 the valve is open the pressure of cylinder directly goes to the brakes 
2. In case 2 the valve closes the brake line from master cylinder is disconnected, it rises the pressure in the line. 
3. In case 3 the valve again releases pressure from brake.

Pump 

It is like a supplementary device when pressure drops it generates the pressure again.

Working of System 

Block Diagram of ABS 
The controller unit is like a brain of system it monitors over every parameter like speed sensors, application of brakes, if it senses braking is done or sudden deceleration in the wheel, so it starts reducing the pressure in that brake until it see some  acceleration, then it increases the pressure to check deceleration again. It can do this very fast in microseconds before the tyres can actually or significantly changes the speed. The result is that the tyres slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tyres very near point at which they will start to lock up and skidding. This gives the system maximum braking power. When the ABS system is in operation you will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves.

Types of ABS 
  1. Single Channel ABS
  2. Dual Channel ABS
  3. Three Channel ABS
  4. Four Channel ABS

1. Single Channel ABS: In India Single Channel ABS is mostly found on Two Wheelers, mostly budget motorcycles comes with single channel ABS, it has only one sensor and valve located at front wheel to control the locking of wheel in hard braking.
Eg. Bajaj Pulsar 200NS, KTM DUKE, Suzuki Gixxer etc.

You may have question why only in front wheels only.
Becasue according to driving and braking dynamics while braking in bikes you have to apply brakes in 70:30 ratio it means 70% braking from front wheel and 30% from rear thats why front brakes are disc brakes with ABS.

2. Dual Channel ABS: Dual Channel ABS is having dual valves and ABS sensor on front as well as rear wheel  it controls both wheels its effect is more accurate than Single Channel ABS, company should provide dual Channel ABS as it prevents locking of rear wheel also it is helpful in high speeds.
Eg. TVS APACHE RTR 180, YAMAHA R15 V3, BAJAJ DOMINAR, APACHE RR310. etc

3. Three channel ABS: It is mainly used in olden cars or trucks three sensors and valves were fitted two on front two wheels and one on differential unit to control locking of rear axles, but now a days this system is rare.

4. Four Channel ABS: As name says four channel each wheel of car is equipped with seperate valve and speed sensors to control the locking of wheels. It is used by all car manufacturers.
Eg. Hyundai Grand i10, Elite i20, Tata Tigor etc.


Comment down your questions 

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